The Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy. Its supreme law is the Constitution together with the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms. In its current form the Constitution has been valid since 1 January 1993 since the date the independent Czech state was established, as a result of the separation of Czechoslovakia.
The Government of the Czech Republic exercises executive power in the country. The members of the government are the Prime Minister who is the Chairman of the Government, the deputy ministers and other ministers.
The president is the head of state who has the power to appoint and recall the prime minister, sign enacted laws, negotiate and ratify international treaties, and be the commander in chief of the armed forces. The prime minister is the head of government, exercising supreme executive power, including the right to set the agenda for most foreign and domestic policy, mobilize the parliamentary majority, and choose governmental ministers.
The parliament holds and passes bills, has the right to modify the constitution, ratifies international agreements, declares war, approves presence of foreign military forces in the Czech Republic, and dispatches of Czech military forces abroad.
The House of Parliament is made up of 200 members, who are elected once every four years. The election system is based on the principles of proportionate representation. A new Czech Government is established on the basis of the results of these elections. Every citizen of the Czech Republic, who is entitled to vote and is at least 21 years of age, can be elected to the House of Parliament. Members are elected as representatives of individual political parties, after their election the parties create parliamentary clubs in the House of Parliament.